Lifetime Achievement Award der International Society of Intelligence Research (ISIR) an Aljoscha Neubauer

Aljoscha Neubauer erhält den Lifetime Achievement Award der International Society of Intelligence Research (ISIR), der weltweit ältesten Vereinigung von Intelligenzforscher*innen, welche auch das renommierte Journal ‚Intelligence‘ herausgibt. Der Preis wird im Juli auf der diesjährigen Tagung der ISIR verliehen werden.

Hier geht es zum Flyer

The future of intelligence research in the coming age of artificial intelligence – With a special consideration of the philosophical movements of trans- and posthumanism

Neubauer, A.C. (2021). The future of intelligence research in the coming age of artificial intelligence – With a special consideration of the philosophical movements of trans- and posthumanism (invited paper for a special issue ‘The future of intelligence research’). Intelligence, 101563

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a hot topic in society as it seems to extend and challenge human cognitive capacity. Yet, it is surprising that human intelligence research in particular and psychology in general has so far contributed very little to the ongoing debates on AI and the related philosophical movements of trans- and posthumanism. Transhumanism promotes the development of technologies that aim at strongly enhancing human psychological (especially intellectual) capacities, achieved by applying neuroscience methods such as transcranial electric/magnetic stimulation (TES, TMS), brain–computer interfaces (BCIs), deep-brain stimulation (DBS), pharmacological and even nanotechnological methods aimed at brain repair or enhancement of brain plasticity. The goal is to achieve a “post-human future,” in which current problems of human mankind should finally be solved. In this contribution I will (1) describe current neuroscientific and pharmacological methods that aim at enhancing human intelligence and how successful they can currently be considered; (2) outline potential implications of a wider application of cognitive enhancements (viewed from a societal perspective, and from an evolutionary perspective of individual differences); (3) outline commonalities and differences between concepts of human versus artificial intelligence; (4) discuss the promises and perils of an (artificial) “super-intelligence” (sensu Nick Bostrom); and (5) consider how psychology could or should contribute to the development of such a “super-intelligence.” Finally, I will try to answer the question: What are the implications of our knowledge on individual differences in psychological traits (e.g., cognitive and social/emotional traits, values) for the further development of AI?

The Joint Influence of Intelligence and Practice on Skill Development Throughout the Lifespan

Vaci, N., Edelsbrunner, P., Stern, E., Neubauer, A.C., Bilalic, M., & Grabner, R.H. (2019). „The
Joint Influence of Intelligence and Practice on Skill Development Throughout the
Lifespan”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of
America (PNAS), 116(37), 18363-18369.

he relative importance of different factors in the development of human skills has been extensively discussed. Research on expertise indicates that focused practice may be the sole determinant of skill, while intelligence researchers underline the relative importance of abilities at even the highest level of skill. There is indeed a large body of research that acknowledges the role of both factors in skill development and retention. It is, however, unknown how intelligence and practice come together to enable the acquisition and retention of complex skills across the life span. Instead of focusing on the 2 factors, intelligence and practice, in isolation, here we look at their interplay throughout development. In a longitudinal study that tracked chess players throughout their careers, we show that both intelligence and practice positively affect the acquisition and retention of chess skill. Importantly, the nonlinear interaction between the 2 factors revealed that more intelligent individuals benefited more from practice. With the same amount of practice, they acquired chess skill more quickly than less intelligent players, reached a higher peak performance, and arrested decline in older age. Our research demonstrates the futility of scrutinizing the relative importance of highly intertwined factors in human development.

Self- and Other-estimates of Intelligence.

Neubauer, A.C. & Hofer, G. (2020). Self- and Other-estimates of Intelligence. Cambridge
Handbook of Intelligence. In R.J. Sternberg (Ed.) Cambridge Handbook of Intelligence
(2nd ed., pp. 1179-1200) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

It is a widely held view that “nobody knows you better than yourself.” However, the low validity of self-estimates of intelligence and other abilities indicated by a considerable body of research does not support this notion. Individuals overestimate themselves and do so particularly for domains in which they perform poorly (the so-called Dunning-Kruger effect). Interestingly, intelligence estimates given by others are equally accurate or sometimes even more accurate than self-estimates. This chapter provides an overview of research on self- and other-estimates of intelligence and potential moderators of their accuracy. It also aims to bring the research lines on self- and other-estimates of intelligence together within the framework of the self-other knowledge asymmetry (SOKA) model proposed by Simine Vazire. The ability to predict for which intelligence subfactors one of the two perspectives might provide more accurate estimates has implications for both research and practical fields like vocational counseling.